Archive for 2011-05-15

Mayan Empires

Since the Spanish conquistadors claimed areas of Central America and Mexico in the sixteenth century, they discovered the ruins of a great civilization, namely the Maya, who had disappeared and left traces of their lost grandeur in massive structures that had been crushed by the surrounding rainforest. Natives could not explain the meaning of the sprawling, vacant cities to the conquistadors. Unlike the great Incan cities, the Mayan centers had long been abandoned.

The ruins of the Maya did not begin to reveal their secrets for 300 years. Since the nineteenth century, enough information is obtained on the Mayan structures to sketch a history of their development, but why the major structures have been abruptly abandoned, and the exact purpose of the massive buildings and large, remains trapped in the past. The Mayan empire stretched from present southern Mexican states of Veracruz, Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas in almost all parts of Guatemala and Belize and Honduras. Ruins in the highlands of Guatemala include Copan, a Maya center of typical places, pyramids, a court for ball games, and blocks of stone inscribed with hieroglyphics.

The ruins of the Maya did not begin to reveal their secrets for 300 years. Since the nineteenth century, enough information is obtained on the Mayan structures to sketch a history of their development, but why the major structures have been abruptly abandoned, and the exact purpose of the massive buildings and large, remains trapped in the past. The Mayan empire stretched from present southern Mexican states of Veracruz, Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas in almost all parts of Guatemala and Belize and Honduras. Ruins in the highlands of Guatemala include Copan, a Maya center of typical places, pyramids, a court for ball games, and blocks of stone inscribed with hieroglyphics.
Tikal Temples

Tikal, another Mayan center in Guatemala, had more than 3,000 structures in a six-square-mile area. Vast palaces with hundreds of rooms, rows and rows of wooden huts, and increasingly larger buildings approaching the center of Tikal accommodated a surrounding community that may have numbered as many as 90,000 people. Palenque is among the centers in the middle area of the Mayan region, where the rain forest is thickest. Among the finds there is the Temple of Inscriptions, a 65-foot-high pyramid. A secret passageway was found by archaeologists in 1952 that led to an elaborate tomb. Riches of jade, finely carved, life sized statues, and an elaborately sculpted sarcophagus were discovered. When modern archaeologists finally mastered Mayan hieroglyphics in the 1970s, inscriptions on the wall of the temple were deciphered. They identified the corpse as Sun Lord Pacal and described his life. Tracing references of dates with the Mayan calendar, another example of Mayan achievement, archaeologists were able to determine that Sun Lord Pacal wasborn in 603, ascended to the throne in 614, and died in 683. The 69 steps that run up the front of the temple each represent a year of his reign.

The Yucatan peninsula along the Gulf of Mexico forms the northernmost region of Mayan settlement. Among the ruins there are Chichen Itza, which feature a collection of pyramids, temples, and other common Mayan structures as well as an observatory where the movements of the Sun and Moon and the planets Mars, Venus, and Jupiter were charted. Further inland lies Uxmal, site of two temple pyramids, a complex of four buildings around a courtyard, and the Palace of Governors with magnificent terraces and a stone mosaic frieze more than 300 feet long (a mosaic consists of small, inlaid materials of various colors that form a pattern or a picture, and a frieze is a richly ornamented band or line on a building).

Belize Temple
The various ruins were not excavated and examined until the latter half of the nineteenth century. They show that Mayans developed systems of mathematics, writing, and astronomy and erected monumental forms of architecture. Subsequent discoveries showed their calendar recorded dates as far back as 600 B.C.E. By the first century B.C.E., they specifically used a calendar that had 18 20-day months—matching the Mayan base- 20 mathematical system (the contemporary mathematical system used in the West is base-10). Because of the state of decline in which the conquistadors found Native Americans of the region, and fueled by cultural bias that made Europeans skeptical that less-advanced people could create such monumental structures, many early explorers believed that the engineering feats of the Mayans had been directed by peoples from the eastern Mediterranean region. Phoenicians and Egyptians had been seafaring people in ancient times. Perhaps they had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. Those who believed such theories speculated that the Mediterranean seafarers had directed the Mayans to build pyramids, taught them hieroglyphics, and brought them social order. Variations on the theme of an external influence on the ancient Mayans continued to develop. Instead of Egyptians or Phoenicians, however, it was advanced Asians who first reached the Mayans and taught them secrets of architecture and mathematics, written language and astronomy. Or perhaps inhabitants of the legendary continent of Atlantis spread their knowledge to various peoples of the world, including the Mayans.

Excavations helped clarify some of the mysteries involving the Mayans. They had distinctive cultural traits evident in similarities of architecture—including pyramids, terraces, and ball courts—and artistic styles of paintings and pottery spread throughout their empire. When modern archaeologists learned how to read Mayan hieroglyphics by establishing meanings and patterns in the images, a history emerged that showed the Mayan centers were not occupied by peaceful astronomers and the large structures did not serve specifically as ceremonial sites. Instead, the hieroglyphics boasted of the accomplishments of a war-like elite. Many of the great Mayan buildings were monuments to great military leaders. Settlements with large structures served as centers for trade, but primarily for the accumulation of riches for the elite of Mayan society. Those who contributed to culture, artisans and astronomers among them, were highly esteemed, but a ruling elite held the riches and the power.

The Mayans learned to grow maize, beans, squash, and cacao. They raised cotton and developed a textile industry for spinning, dyeing, and weaving cloth, but they did not develop metal tools, domesticate large beasts of burden, and, in spite of building an elaborate system of roads, did not develop the wheel. Over the centuries, the Mayans domesticated the dog and the turkey, and they discovered how to mine copper, gold, silver, and jade, creating valuable and prized items. From 800 to 500 B.C.E., the Mayans began erecting modest burial monuments, which bycirca 400 B.C.E. to 250 C.E. had evolved into terraced, pyramidal shapes. The Mayan pyramids differ from those in Egypt, where the sides of the structures converge to form a pointed top. The pyramidal structures of the Mayans reach a certain height, then level off to form a flat platform on which temples were built.

Mayan civilization thrived until around 800 when a decline began. Tikal was abandoned, and the process of recording events stopped there by 900. Building began in another center, Seibal, in the southern lowlands in 830 but ended abruptly around 900. Uxmal showed more development around 850, but it was abandoned around 925. Chichen Itza was abandoned around 987. It was subsequently occupied, like some of the other centers, but new massive structures were not built and the old temples did not serve the same functions as they had in the past. In 2000, near the present-day village of Cancuen, Guatemala, a Mayan palace was discovered in a long-abandoned city named the Place of Serpents that is estimated to cover an area as large as two football fields. With 170 high-ceiling rooms and 11 courtyards, the palace was revealed to have been a prosperous center of commerce and crafts. Inscriptions on the palace walls showed that it was completed by a leader named Tah ak Chaan, who ruled over Cancuen from 740 to around 790. Unlike other Mayan centers, there are as yet no indications that the rulers of the area engaged in warfare. There are no pyramids in the area, or outdoor plazas, and there appears to be a complete absence of religious symbols or any indications of the ceremonies evident in other Mayan centers.

Rulers of the city appeared to specialize in commerce, not warfare, and a larger working-class group of people seemed to live in the Place of Serpents than at other Mayan centers. Hundreds of workshops where artisans plied their crafts were found. What factors caused the demise of the Mayan empire remains a mystery. Destruction from earthquakes is evident in some Mayan centers, but not all, and earthquakes are not believed to have leveled any of the major centers. There is no evidence of mass burials thatwould indicate an epidemic, such as plague, small pox, or other infectious diseases that swept through Europe during the same time as the Mayan’s golden era and downfall. An isolated disruption caused by conquerors from the north, a natural catastrophe, or war among leaders of Mayan centers would have affected trade routes that ran through the interior.

Tikal, a major inland center dependent on trade, would certainly have been affected by such a disruption. Twice, in the sixth and ninth centuries, Tikal seems to have undergone some form of chaos. The great success of the Mayan culture may be a plausible reason for their downfall. As the population grew, the stress on agriculture became greater, for an expanding population requires consistently more food production. Soil erosion or drought would have greatly affected the large settlements. A decrease in production would have led to malnutrition, increasing the likeliness of disease. Some human skeletal remains from the period show signs of malnutrition, but no conclusive evidence has been found to determine a sudden, widespread catastrophe.

(Source : Encyclopedia of Unusual and Unexplained Things)

Read More Other Unsolved Mysteries article!

Posted in , | Leave a comment

Lost City of Botaderos Mountain


The ruins of a city, they say again that the Maya were discovered near Copan in Honduras. According to Mexican anthropologist Victor Heredia, the so-called town meetings lying on the desert mountain Botaderos about 120 miles north of the capital Tegucigalpa. The region was inhabited by Indians Tawhakas, whose descendants still live in Honduras, but it is unknown which culture inhabited the site.

Reuters reported that the ruins covers at least 12 acres at the point where two rivers meet. The city includes vestiges of three rectangular plazas, various mounds and small stone-encrusted pillars.
Eastern Honduras is also home to the Mayan ruins at Copan, part of a civilization that extended, according to conventional scholarship, from Mexico through Central America between A.D. 250 and 1000.

It appears to have been built in the pre-Classical or early Classical period between 300 B.C. and 300 A.D., said Heredia. "It's a pre-Hispanic city, a complex site. It has a well-defined architectural structure that implies the work of many people over a long period of time," he said.  

The ultimate origin of Copan’s ruins remains a mystery. Frank Joseph reported recently from “The First Copan Congress” in Honduras, where prominent scholars convened to discuss the ruins, academic science has shown little interest in exploring the deeper implications of the highly sophisticated art and science revealed in the area. Here they see latter-day corroboration for the work of maverick scholars like James Churchward and Augustus LePlongeon. A century ago, the pair led the way in arguing that the civilizations of central and south America had originated in a drowned Pacific land called Lemuria. They have not been proved wrong yet.

Sources :
Atlantis Rising Magazine Vol.41 :”Ancient City Found Near Copan”;  

Read More Other Unsolved Mysteries article!

Posted in | Leave a comment

Time Travelers ??

Time travel was a plot device in fiction since the 19th Joint century journey and a path to the future is without doubt that this phenomenon of time dilation based on velocity in the theory of relativity ( illustrated by both paradox), and the gravitational time dilation in the theory of general relativity, it is unclear whether the laws of physics allow travel back time. These events, often called the shifts seem to occur randomly and spontaneously. Those who live these experiences are often disoriented and confused by what they see and hear, and then to a total loss to explain them. And also some stories of those who said they were passengers in real time.

Any technological device, whether fictional or hypothetical, which is used to achieve time travel is generally known as a time machine, and a time traveler (American spelling) or time travelers (the British spelling), also called "chrononaut" is a person who uses travel time.

In 1935, Air Marshal Sir Victor Goddard British Royal Air Force was a painful experience in his Hawker Hart on two levels. Goddard was a Wing Commander and the same flight from Edinburgh, Scotland, is based in Andover, England, decided to fly abandoned airport, Drem, near Edinburgh. Needless the field was covered with foliage, sheds, were disintegrating, and the cattle graze if the car once parked. Goddard continued his flight to Andover, but he meets a strange storm.

In the high winds of the storm's strange brown-yellow clouds, he lost control of his plane, which began to spiral toward the ground. Narrowly averting a crash, Goddard found that his plane was heading back toward Drem. As he approached the old airfield, the storm suddenly vanished and Goddard's plane was now flying in brilliant sunshine.

This time, as he flew over the Drem airfield, it looked completely different. The hangars looked like new. There were four airplanes on the ground: three were familiar biplanes, but painted in an unfamiliar yellow; the fourth was a monoplane, which the RAF had none of in 1935. The mechanics were dressed in blue overalls, which Goddard thought odd since all RAF mechanics dressed in brown overalls. Strange, too, that none of the mechanics seemed to notice him fly over. Leaving the area, he again encountered the storm, but managed to make his way back to Andover.

It wasn't until 1939 that that the RAF began to paint their planes yellow, enlisted a monoplane of the type that Goddard saw, and the mechanics uniforms were switched to blue. Had Goddard somehow flown four years into the future, then returned to his own time?

“Reopening of the South Fork Bridge after flood in Nov. 1940. 1941 (?)”
It’s the short description for the photograph shown at the virtual Bralorne Pioneer Museum, from British Columbia, Canada. A photograph from November 1940 was alleged to show a time traveller. It was claimed that his clothing and sun glasses were modern and not the style worn in 1940. The man with what appears to be very modern sunglasses seems to be wearing a stamped T-shirt with a nice sweater, all the while holding a portable compact camera.
Further research proved that the modern appearance of the man may not have been so modern - The style of sunglasses first appeared in the 1920s and in fact Barbara Stanwyck can be seen wearing a similar pair in the film Double Indemnity three years later. On first glance the man is taken by many to be wearing a modern printed T-Shirt but a closer look shows it looks to be a sweater with a sewn on emblem, the kind of clothing regularly worn by sports teams of the period. The remainder of his clothing would also have been available at the time however are far more casual than those worn by the other individuals in the photograph.

In October 1969, Matt and his friend Charlie had just finished lunch in the small Southwest American town, and began their drive north along Highway 167 towards the city of Lafayette about a half hour away. It was early in the afternoon.
The highway seemed to be practically abandoned with only the occasional car traveling in the opposite direction. Ahead in the distance they saw an old sedan traveling very slowly. They examined the antique vehicle as they got closer. While the style of the auto indicated it to be decades old, it appeared to be in showroom condition, which amazed both passengers. The car was really traveling slowly so Matt decided to put safety first and pass the collector's item. As they did so, Matt noticed a very large bright orange license plate with the year "1940" clearly printed on it. Both men were aghast at this and wondered if this car was headed to a rally or a parade, because it was plainly illegal to operate a motor vehicle with thirty year old license plates.
As they passed the car slowly to its left, Charlie, who was in the passenger's seat, noticed the driver of the car was a young woman dressed in what appeared to be 1940 vintage clothing. This was 1969 and the fact that the young woman was wearing a hat complete with a long colored feather and a fur coat was, a bit unusual. A small child stood on the seat next to her, possibly a little girl. The gender of the child was hard to determine as it too wore a heavy coat and cap. The windows of her car were rolled up, a fact which puzzled Charlie, because, though the temperature was nippy, it was quite pleasant and a light sweater was sufficient to keep you comfortable. As they pulled up next to the car, their mild fascination turned to shock as they could clearly see the fear and panic on the woman's face. She was frantically looking back and forth as if lost or in need of help. She appeared on the verge of tears.
Being on the passenger's side, Matt called out to her and asked if she needed help. She nodded "yes"! Matt motioned to her to pull over and park on the side of the road. He had to repeat the request several times with hand gestures and mouthing the words because her window was rolled up and it seemed she had difficulty hearing them. They saw her begin to pull over so they continued to pass her and pull off the highway safely in front of her. As they came to a halt on the shoulder of the road, Matt and Charlie turned to look at the old car behind them. It had only been a matter of seconds, but when they looked back for the car, it was gone. Its important to remember that this was on a two lane highway with no turnoffs or high foliage or obstructions that could hide a car. It just vanished.
Matt and Charlie just stared at the empty highway. They sat spellbound in their car. They could see for miles behind them and all they saw was an empty road. This is often repeated story, when many variations, but with the same outcome, no proof.
In Lima, Peru several years ago a patient came to see Dr. Raul Rios Centeno, an investigator of the unexplained about a serious case of hemiplegia. The patient claimed to be 30 years old but was unable to prove it, stating that she'd lost her formal identification card. It was a very strange case of hemiplegia, since upon examination with a CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scan, there were neither areas showing bleeding vessels nor any traumatic lesions.
When Dr. Raul began asking questions about the case, the patient told him the following statement: "I was at a campground in the vicinity of the ancient stone forest, Markawasi, when I went out exploring late at night with some friends. Oddly enough, we heard the strains of music and noticed a small torch-lit stone cabin. I was able to see people dancing inside, but upon getting closer I felt a sudden sensation of cold which I paid little attention to, and I stuck my head through an open door. It was then that I saw the occupants were clad in 17th century fashion. I tried to enter the room, but one of my girlfriends pulled me out."
The patient was tugged out by one of her friends, and her body became paralyzed in half precisely as she was drawn out of the "stone cabin". His conclusion is that the probable cause behind the hemiplegia is unknown. No medical test was able to ascertain its cause. Nonetheless, an EEG was able to show that the left hemisphere of the brain did not show signs of normal functioning, as well as an abnormal amount of electric waves.
Many Peruvians claim having had contact experiences in Markawasi, while many scholars indicate the existence of a dimensional doorway. No conclusive proof of this exists, of course. Others who have visited the stone forest can attest to the existence of a strange kind of energy. According to those persons having knowledge of this subject, dimensional doorways tend to open and close not necessarily in specific places. The patient is currently undergoing physical rehabilitation in Lima's Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital.
The unanswered question is, of course, what would have happened if her body had entered completely into the stone cabin? Would she have gone into another dimension?
In 1979 two British couples vacationing in the north of France. They were driving, looking for a place to stay for the night. Along the way, they were struck by some signs that seemed to be for a very old-fashioned type of circus. The first building they came to looked like it might be a motel, but some men standing in front of it told the travelers it was "an inn" and that a hotel could be found down the road.
Further on, they did find an old-fashioned building marked "hotel." Inside, they discovered, almost everything was made of heavy wood, and there seemed to be no evidence of such modern conveniences as telephones. Their rooms has no locks, but simple wooden latches and the windows had wooden shutters but no glass. In the morning, as they ate breakfast, two gendarmes entered wearing very old-fashioned caped uniforms. After getting what turned out to be very bad directions to Avignon from the gendarmes, the couples paid a bill that came to only 19 francs, and they left.
After two weeks in Spain, the couples made a return trip through France and decided to again stay at the interesting if odd but very cheap hotel. This time, however, the hotel could not be found. Certain they were in the exact same spot (they saw the same circus posters), they realized that the old hotel had completely vanished without a trace. Photos taken at the hotel did not develop. And a little research revealed that French gendarmes wore uniforms of that description prior to 1905.
The mystery of the John Titor Story has always fascinated many people who have a liking towards science fiction. It all started when a person calling himself John Titor started posting online about time traveling, claiming himself to be a real time traveler.
For years, the mystery of this story remains unsolved and it has always fascinated many people reading his story. John Titor is the name used on several bulletin boards during 2000 and 2001 by a poster claiming to be a time traveler from the year 2036. In these posts he made numerous predictions (a number of them vague, some quite specific) about events in the near future, starting with events in 2004. However, as of 2011, these events appear not to have taken place; he described a drastically changed future in which the United States had broken into five smaller regions, the environment and infrastructure had been devastated by a nuclear attack, and most other world powers had been destroyed.
When asked for evidence, Titor made these statements:
“I thought I would share with you things we wonder about. Your logic about me is quite correct but again I must state that I am not trying to get you or anyone else to believe or buy anything.”
“As far as evidence goes…I have however decided to try an experiment with you that may be more convincing. It involves the travel of information at faster than light. In fact, I have dropped at least three little gems like this that no one else has picked up on.”
The three gems:
Gem 1:
Posted by John Titor on 21 November 2000 10:41
For a change, I have a question for all of you. I want you to think…think very hard. What major disaster was expected and prepared for in the last year and a half that never happened?
Gem 2:
Posted by John Titor on 06 December 2000 21:36
Think back to the early days of the computer and how much work and cleverness it took to fit those programs into such small areas of memory. Has more and cheaper memory brought better programs or just more programs
Gem 3: Posted by John Titor on 13 December 2000 12:44
(BTW Someone just gave me a working IBM 5160. Should I save it or toss it?) Toss it. The 5100 is the interesting machine.
“In 2036, it was discovered (or at least known after testing) that the 5100 computer was capable of reading and changing all of the legacy code written by IBM before the release of that system and still be able to create new code in APL and basic. That is the reason we need it in 2036. However, that information was never published by IBM because it would have probably destroyed a large part of their business infrastructure in the early 70s. In fact, I would bet the engineers were probably told to keep their mouth’s shut.”
“Therefore, if I were not here now telling you this, that information would not be discovered for another 36 years. Yet, I would bet there is someone out there who can do the research and discover I am telling the truth. There must be an old IBM engineer out there someplace that worked on the 5100. They just might not have ever asked if I hadn’t pointed it out.”
Titor said the main reason he was posting online was to collect information about 5100 computer and take it back to 2036. This includes, how people react to the fact that Y2K was fixed by a Time Traveler. Also it shows Titor’s stealth skills. How well he performed his duty without being spotted.
When asked for technical details about time travel, Titor gives a detailed information of how it is accomplished.
“The source of power for the C204 that allows it to distort and manipulate gravity comes from two microsingularities that were created, captured and cleaned at a much larger and “circular” facility. The dual event horizons of each one and their mass is manipulated by injecting electrons onto the surface of their respective ergospheres. The electricity comes from batteries. The breakthrough that will allow for this technology will occur within a year or so when CERN brings their larger facility online.”
“Perhaps it would have been clearer to state that the math has been around since 1970. I would urge you to examine the properties of Kerr black holes and Tipler cylinders. An actual working prototype was first tested in 2034. On my worldline, time travel is not a public recreation but we are all aware that it exists. You may be disappointed to know that the ability to manipulate gravity is not the technical challenge that had to be overcome. Miniaturizing the clocks and sensors, creating clever ways to vent x-rays and creating a computer system dependable enough to calculate the changes required to the field were the main challenges. There are no missing pieces…just missing energy levels and a few very interesting subatomic particles.”
“Actually, there are 2 singularities in the unit. The gravity field is manipulated by three factors that affect it in distinct ways. Adding electric charge to the singularities increases the diameter of the inner event horizons. Adding mass to the singularities increases the area of gravitational influence around the singularities. Rotating and positioning the polar axis of the singularities affects and alters the gravity sinusoid. The effects of the gravity produced by the unit do not have enough time to significantly alter physical objects within a reasonable distance from the outside of the sinusoid. No, things do not get smaller.”
“There is no relative movement in space due to three main factors. Large, kinetic energy inducing effects of the gravity field are compensated for by the interaction of the singularities. The mass of the unit and any objects inside the sinusoid do not exhibit any huge increases on the departure worldline during travel. The observed path of the traveler is obtained by changing the gravity, not by moving the vehicle. The black hole comes to you.”
To date, the story has been retold on numerous web sites, in a book, and in a play. He has also been discussed occasionally on the radio show Coast to Coast AM.
Andrew Carlssin is another person who claimed that he's a time traveler. He was reportedly arrested in January 2002 for SEC violations for making 126 high-risk stock trades and being successful on every one. As reported, Carlssin started with an initial investment of $800 and ended with of over $350,000,000, which drew the attention of the SEC.
Later reports suggest that after his arrest, he submitted a four-hour confession wherein he claimed to be a time traveler from 200 years in the future. He offered to tell investigators such things as the whereabouts of Osama bin Laden and the cure for AIDS in return for a lesser punishment and to be allowed to return to his time craft, although he refused to tell investigators the location or workings of his craft.
In October 2010, Northern Irish filmmaker George Clarke uploaded a video clip entitled "Chaplins Time Traveler" to YouTube. The clip analyzes bonus material in a DVD of the Charlie Chaplin film The Circus. Included in the DVD are footage from the film's Los Angeles premier at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in 1928.
At one point, a woman is seen walking by, talking into a device that Clarke said appeared to be a cell phone. Clarke concluded that the woman was a time traveler.The clip received millions of hits and became an Internet meme. Nicholas Jackson, associate editor for The Atlantic, said the device was either a Siemens or Western Electric brand hearing aid. Philip Skroska, an archivist at the Bernard Becker Medical Library of Washington University in St. Louis, thought that the woman might have been holding a rectangular-shaped ear trumpet. New York Daily News writer Michael Sheridan said the device was probably an early hearing aid, perhaps manufactured by Acousticon.
Sources :
John Titor : The Secrets Unveiled Find out the credibility of a Time Traveler By The Researcher;;;;;
Pic Sources :;

Posted in | Leave a comment
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...


Swedish Greys - a WordPress theme from Nordic Themepark. Converted by