The majestic Sphinx

The majestic Sphinx

The Sphinx is the oldest and longest stone sculpture from the Old Kingdom.
During the eighteenth dynasty, it was called "Horus of the Horizon" and "Horus of the Necropolis", the sun god that stands above the horizon. 
In later times, many sphinx images were carved in smaller sizes or in cameos with the faces of the reigning monarchs. The face of the Great Sphinx is believed to be that of Chephren, the fourth-dynasty pharaoh who built the second-largest pyramid in the Giza triad. In the image of the Sphinx, the pharaoh was seen as a powerful god.

The Great Sphinx of Giza belongs to the Giza necropolis west of Cairo.

The site is a plateau containing the three great pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura, together with the Sphinx and a number of smaller pyramids, temples, and tombs. 
The Giza structures were built by 4th Dynasty kings at the height of the Old Kingdom. (Scholars divide ancient Egyptian civilization into: 
  • the Predynastic (the ten centuries before 3050 BCE), 
  • the Archaic or Early Dynastic (3050-2575 BCE), 
  • the Old Kingdom (2575-2150 BCE), 
  • the Middle Kingdom (2040-1783 BCE), 
  • the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE), 
  • and the Late Dynastic (1070-332 BCE).
So-called intermediate periods followed the Old and Middle Kingdoms.)

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